The museum says the show represents every period of the Russian-born painter's four-decade career, from his early figurative works to his modern pieces. Considered a pioneer of abstract art, he was also a wood engraver, lithographer and teacher.
The exhibit also features a mural Kandinsky designed during his Bauhaus years, the first time it can be seen in the United States.
The museum organized the exhibition with the Centre Pompidou in Paris, one of the major repositories of Kandinsky's work. The Paris collection, which came from his widow, is composed of his favorite works.
"Kandinsky: A Retrospective" runs through Sept. 1. Kandinsky died in 1944.